Saturday, 29 July 2017


Modal Verbs or Modals are a group of auxiliary verbs which modify the meaning of the main verb. They are used to suggest certainty, possibility or ability, duty or obligation, necessity etc. They are also used to seek or give permission, make suggestions, make polite requests, give advice, give invitations etc.
Modal Verbs are always used with the main verb. The use of Modal Verbs is determined by the meaning which the speaker wishes to express.
Example 1. I will go to office today. (certainty)
                 2. I might go to office today. (possibility)
                 3. I can go to office today. (ability)

A)     CAN’ is used :
·         For permission.  Can I go there? Yes , you can.
·         To express possibility.  Anyone can make a mistake.
·         To express ability or capacityHe can sing melodiously.
B)      COULD’ is used :
·         To express ability / capacity in the past. He could cycle very fast in his childhood.
·         To express a polite request. Could you hold this for me?
·         To express possibility under certain conditions.  If I had money, I could buy my own house.
C)      MUST’ is used :
·         To express obligation or duty. You must do your work in time.
·         To express necessity, compulsion or prohibition. You must not drive till you complete 18 years.
·         To express strong probability. They must have reached by now.
D)     ‘HAVE TO’ is used as a modal :
·         To talk about rules, laws and other people’s wishes.  You have to submit all these documents .
·         To give advice or to recommend something.  You have to taste this new dish.
E)      NEED’ is used :
·         Mainly to show absence of necessity or compulsion. You need not pay the fees.
                                                                                          You need to improve your manners.
                                                                                          Need I do this work ?
                                                                                          You needn’t have bothered.
F)      ‘OUGHT’ is used :
·         To express the subject’s obligation or duty.  You ought to be polite with your friends.
·         To give advice. You ought to study for two hours daily.
G)     DARE’ is used :
·         Mostly in the negative and interrogative. It means to have courage’. How dare you be so rude?
                                                                                                                                           I dare not enter her office.
H)     ‘WILL’ is used :
·         To express pure future with second/ third person. The Minister will inaugrate the bridge today.
·         To express willingness, intention, determination.  I will read my novel today.
·         To express a characteristic habit, assumption, invitation or query. Will you help me in my work?
I)        ‘SHALL’ is used :
·         To express pure future with the first person. We shall do this work tomorrow.
·         To ask for advice, suggestion, request etc. with the first person( in the interrogative) .                                                                                                                     Shall I bring the file right now?
·         To express command, threat, warning, promise, assurance etc. with the second and third person. They shall be rewarded/ punished.  You shall stay.                                                                                                                  
J)       ‘WOULD’ is used :
·         To express past habits. My father would rise early and go for a walk every morning
·         To make a polite request. Would you explain this topic again, please?
                                               I would like to meet you tomorrow.
·         To express a wish/ preference. I wish you would be more sensible in your behavior.         I would rather have tea.
·         To express an imaginary condition. I would buy a car if I won the prize money.
K)     ‘SHOULD’ is used :
·         To express duty. We should obey our parents.
·         To give advice/ suggestion. You should carry out some research for your role.
·         To express probability/ logical inference. They should have been here by now.
·         To express purpose after ‘lest’. Work hard, lest you should fail.
L)      MAY’ is used :
·         To express permission. May we enter the room. No, you may not.
·         To express possibility. It may rain today.
·         To express wish, faith or hope. May God be with you at every step of your life.
M)   ‘MIGHT’ is used :
·         To express less possibility. It might rain today.
·         To make a guess. That might be the milkman.

Ex 1. Complete the sentences using the words listed box below. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. Some gaps may need to be filled with negated modals.
can     could     have to     must     might     should
Top of Form
1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He _________ be exhausted after such a long flight. He_________ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you _________ walk downtown and explore the waterfront.
3. Hiking the trail to the peak _________ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You __________ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
4. When you have a small child in the house, you ____________ leave small objects lying around. Such objects  _________ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.
5. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It  ________ have cost a fortune.

6. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they  _________ die.

7. I _________ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I ___________ just say a few things in the language.

8. You  _________ take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said there's a storm north of here and it ____________ rain later on this afternoon.

Ex 2.Choose the correct answer for each gap from could, would, should or might. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer.
Donna: If I won the ten million dollar lottery jackpot, I _________ afford to quit my job and travel the world.
Sam: Where _________ you go if you had that much money?
Donna: I don't know, I _________ choose to spend a year in Paris - or perhaps I __________ go to Kenya.
Ex 3. Modal Verbs have been omitted in the lines below. Insert appropriate words. In some case you may have to use negated modals:
1.      Headboy to the Sports Incharge: Sir, I be excused from attending tomorrow’s meeting?

2.      Child to his mother: I don’t want to have this porridge. I have some Maggi instead?
3.      Seema to her elder sister: you lend me your cardigan please?
4.      Librarian to the student: You talk in here.
5.      Guest to the host: you pass me the salt please?
6.      Teacher to the student: You work very hard for these exams.
7.      Passerby to the motorist: You turn right and then left for the Motel.
8.      Teacher to the principal: you like to meet Nisha? She be in the Chemistry Lab.
9.      Doctor to the patient: You take care of your diet. You are becoming obese.
10.  One friend to another: We definitely attend your birthday party.
11.  Chemist to the customer: You take medicines without the doctor’s advice.
Ex 4. Here are some rude commands. Use will/would/can/could to make them polite. Add some explanation for your request:
Example: Switch that television off!
                   I have to prepare for a test tomorrow. Could you switch that television off, please?
1.      Don’t make noise here.
2.      Get me a cup of tea.
3.      Open that window.
4.      Take away that dog.
5.      Don’t make a crowd near the patient’s bed.                

Saturday, 22 July 2017


Class: XI
Characteristics of notes
a. Phrases not sentences
b. Recognizable abbreviations with a key at the end
c. Appropriate Headings
d. Appropriate sub-headings
e. Points which are numbered uniformly
f. Sub-points-supplementary to the points, if needed
g. Proper indentation
h. Title
i. In Notes avoid the following:
1. Examples, people’s comments, if they are just supplementing given information
2. Repetition of ideas
A SUMMARY must be written in complete sentences and within the word limit. (80 words)
Proper Indentation
1.1 Sub-Heading
1.2 Sub-Heading
1.3 Sub-Heading
1.3.1 Sub-Sub-heading
1.3.2 Sub-Sub-Heading
2.1 Sub-Heading
2.2 Sub-Heading

Friday, 21 July 2017

Tips for attempting Reading comprehension

Reading for comprehension passages test the ability of students to maneuver through the given passage to reach the right answer. It is like a puzzle that must be solved, and the solver must work his or her way through the passage to answer the questions. They discourage cram work. 

PROSE Questions pertaining to reading for comprehension often contain prosaic passages. These passages can be discursive, descriptive, or factual. These questions are designed to test the ability of the students to analyze the idea that the passage is trying to convey. 

Steps to answer questions: 1. Carefully read the given passages at least twi ice or till you understand the essence of the text. 2. Go through the passage once more to pick out words which contain an answer to the question. 3. Refer to other question sets. 4. Answer neatly in your own words, avoiding mistakes in spellings and grammar. 5. Title will be based on: a) The main point or idea. b) The main event. c) The main character.

 PARTS OF READING FOR COMPREHENSION: 1. Vocabulary: Give a meaning that means the same thing or nearly the same thing as the original word. Only one word or one short phrase will be given, even if there are other words with the exact meaning. The tense of the meaning word (verb) must be in the same tense of the original word.

2. Short questions: The answers must be precise. Avoid irrelevant details. Pay attention to the instructions. Quote verbatim. Follow the order of the questions.

3. Summary Writing: Summary writing calls for your ability to summarize a passage within the limit of 80-100 words. It ensures that you understand the passage and have the judgment to separate what is relevant and what is irrelevant. A good summary should be complete in itself so that anyone who has no time to read the original passage, may, by reading the summary, knows what the writer of the original passage means to convey to the reader 

Thursday, 20 July 2017


Poem Voice of Rain

Q1 How is the rain formed?
Q2How does it give life to its origin?
Q3What is meant by "Eternal I rise"
q4 What is meant by word"Palpable"?

Comprehension Passage

India has deployed aerial drones over Kaziranga National Park in Assam state in a bid to protect endangered one-horned rhinos from poachers. Kaziranga chief NK Vasu said the maiden drone flight on Monday was a “milestone in wildlife protection”. The park is home to two-thirds of the world’s one-horned rhino population and also has a large number of elephants, tigers and other wildlife. In recent months, rhinos have been killed in large numbers by poachers. Drones and other successful anti-poaching measures have also been used by the WWF in nearby Chitwan National Park in Nepal, where the hunting of one-horned rhinos has been drastically reduced. “The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was up in the sky for 15 minutes. It landed safely,” Mr. Vasu said. “We hope this technology will go a long way in effective surveillance of the park.” Assam Forest Minister Rockybul Hussain said this was the first time that drones had been used for wildlife protection anywhere in India. “The UAVs will deter poachers who will now have to reckon with surveillance from air as well as on ground,” MrHussain said. The minister said it would now be possible to keep an eye on the remotest parts of the 480 sq km (185 sq miles) park. The drones can fly a pre-programmed route at a maximum elevation of 200m (656ft) for up to 90 minutes, officials say. They are light enough to be launched by hand and will be able to take images of the ground below with a still or video camera, they add. Twenty-two one-horned rhinos were killed in Kaziranga by poachers last year. In the first three years of this month, 16 rhinos have been killed, triggering a furore in Assam where the animal is seen as a symbol of regional pride and is also valued for drawing tourists to the state. A rhino census in Kaziranga last month said that there were about 2,300 of the animals in Kaziranga. BBC NEWS

Read the passage and answer the following questions: a) This passage states that drones …………………………………………………. And not only for wars between nations. b) The drones will be able to do two things: they are 1)………………………………………. 2)………………………………………. c) 22 one horned rhinos killed by poachers means……………………………….. d) The introduction of drones for surveillance is a --------------------------measure. (one word) e) The author states that there has been a public outburst because 16 rhinos were killed-the term he uses is------------------- f) This passage suggests that the greatest enemy of wildlife is ------------------------ g) The passage begins with the idea that drones will be a “milestone in wildlife protection”. This actually means that------------------------------------------------ h) An elevation is a term that tells us that------------------------------in the sky. 

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

chapter 2

English Chapter 2
what are the attributes of an optimistic person?
What was the attitude of the children during the voyage?

Sunday, 14 May 2017

Poem 2- An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum

Poem 2- An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum
                                  By- Stephen Spender
Reference to Context
1.      Stanza 1- ‘Far far from…….other than this.’

a)      How does the poet describe the children in the beginning of the poem?
b)     Why is the tall girl’s head weighed down?
c)      What does the poet mean by ‘rat’s eyes’?
d)     Why does the poet refer to the stunted child as ‘unlucky heir’?
e)     How is the child sitting at the back of the classroom different from other children?

2.      Stanza 2 –‘On sour cream walls….. stars of words.’
a)      Explain ‘sour cream walls, donations’
b)     What does Shakespeare’s head symbolize?
c)      How is the presence of the picture of a ‘civilized dome’ in the classroom ironical?
d)     What is the Tyrolese valley famous for?
e)     What kind of a world do these children belong to? What does ‘lead sky symbolize?

3.      Stanza 3- ‘Surely Shakespeare is wicked… big as slum.’
a)      Why is Shakespeare wicked?
b)     How is the world map a bad example?
c)      Explain line 3 of the stanza.
d)     What does the phrase ,’ fog to endless night represent’?
e)     How does the poet express his anguish?

4.      Stanza 4- ‘ Unless governor……language is the sun.’
a)      What does the poet desire from the educated and powerful people ?
b)     What do catacombs imply? How is the world of the slum children like catacombs?
c)      What does the poet mean by green fields and golden sands?
d)     What does the poet wish for the children to be provided with?
e)     Discuss the last line